Category Archives: OOP

Topic 4 – Object-Oriented Programming

Why do I need to know an object-oriented programming language?

Because most of modern applications are written using an object-oriented programming language. Using an object-oriented programming language as a tool will save you a lot of time and cost when you create a modern application.

Alright! What should I do now?

Please read this JJim Keogh and Mario Giannini (2004). OOP Demystified. McGraw-Hill book.

Is that all?

Unfortunately, the book is not sufficient although it already gives you the fundamental concepts of object-oriented programming. The book does not teach you how to create real world software using an object-oriented programming language.

We recommend that you read it first because it introduces basic concepts of object-oriented programming very well. It helps you to distinguish object-oriented concepts from procedural programing concepts very clearly so that you could read other books to dig into object-oriented programming in a right way.

Please read this RB Whitaker (2017). The C# Player's Guide. Starbound Software book to understand how to use object-oriented concepts to create real world software using a specific object-oriented programming language (i.e. C# language).
After that please take a quick look at  
- this Joseph Albahari and Ben Albahari (2018). C# 7.0 in a Nutshell: The Definitive Reference. 7th Edition. O’Reilly Media book or 
- this Herbert Schildt (2010). C# 4.0 The Complete Reference. McGraw Hill book so that you can refer to specific topics when creating real world applications.

I hear that there are many object-oriented programming languages such as C++, C#, Java, PHP, Objective-C, Swift, Python, Ruby. How many object-oriented programming languages should I know?

You should learn as many as possible. However, in this stage, we recommend that you learn only C# or Java or C++.
- If you are required or prefer to learn C++, please read this Bjarne Stroustrup (2013). The C++ Programming Language book.
- If you are required or prefer to learn Java, please read this Herbert Schildt (2014). Java: The Complete Reference book.
After that please read 
- this Matt Weisfeld (2019). The Object-Oriented Thought Process book and 
- this Bertrand Meyer (1997). Object-Oriented Software Construction book to understand the object-oriented concepts more deeply.
After finishing the books please click Topic 5 - Introduction to Windows Programming to continue.

Topic 15 – Advanced Software Design

Why do I need to learn about advanced software design?

I think that I already learned about software design in the Topic 12 – Introduction to Software Design.

Now your task is not just to build a house.  Your task is to build a city. 

The situation is similar to when you create complex software. Now, you are responsible for creating a software system containing about 10,000 classes for 5,000 people to use in 15 years. The maximum system downtime must be less than 5 minutes per year.
Image that you have to create a system that serves millions of people simultaneously like Facebook or YouTube or Amazon or Office 365 or GMail. Are you able to create it?
Image that you are tasked to create a web framework for developers to extend such as ASP.NET CORE or Yii or React.js. Are you confident in creating one?
If you are not sure how to fulfill these tasks then probably, you should learn how other people crafted similar systems and adapt their experiences to your case. Advanced software design knowledge will then be useful for you.

What can I do after finishing learning advanced software design?

You will know how to design a complex software system that satisfies not only functional requirements but also security, modifiability, scalability, reusability, extensibility and reliability requirements.

That sounds interesting! What should I do now?

Advanced software design requires a lot of reading. Please do review the software design knowledge introduced to you in the Topic 12 - Introduction to Software Design first.
Nowadays software can be applied to many fields. Each of them requires specific advanced software design knowledge. In this topic, we only focus on enterprise software because of its popularity.
Before you design a complicated system you must thoroughly  understand its sophisticated requirements. This is a critical step when building a large system.

Please read this David C. Hay (2002). Requirements Analysis: From Business Views to Architecture. Prentice Hall PTR book to learn how to capture requirements for an enterprise system.
After that please read 
- this Deepak Alur, Dan Malks and John Crupi (2003). Core J2EE Patterns: Best Practices And Design Strategies. Prentice Hall PTR book, and
- this Martin Fowler et al. (2002). Patterns Of Enterprise Application Architecture. Addison Wesley book, and
- this Philip A. Bernstein and Eric Newcomer (2009). Principles of Transaction Processing. Second Edition. Morgan Kaufmann book.
After that please read 
- this Eric Evans (2003). Domain-Driven Design: Tackling Complexity in the Heart of Software. Addison Wesley book and
- this Jimmy Nilsson (2006). Applying Domain-Driven Design and Patterns: With Examples in C# and .NET. Addison-Wesley Professional book.
After that please read 
- this "Cloves Carneiro Jr. and Tim Schmelmer (2016. Microservices from Day One: Build robust and scalable software from the start" book, and 
- this "Sam Newman (2016). Building Microservices: Designing Fine-Grained Systems" book.

After finishing the books please click Topic 16 – Calculus to continue.

Topic 12 – Introduction to Software Design

Why do I need to learn about software design?

What will you do if you are tasked to build a house. You will need to sketch its first and build the house based upon the sketch. Otherwise you may build a house that may collapse in a few weeks or cannot be decorated due to errors.

The situation is similar when you create software. You need to plan how you will build it first by deciding how many components and objects will be used and what are their responsibility, how they work together, how data will be organized, how data will be flowed within your application, how users will interact with the application, etc.

Software design knowledge will show you how to do these tasks.

What can I do after finishing learning software design?

You will know how to create a design for an application including static and dynamic structure, data organization, business processing workflows, etc.

Is is really useful? I feel that you can write the code right after having the requirements and I could refactor my code when needed.

That's great if you can do it like that. Just return to this topic
(i) when you do not know how to write the code for a feature or 
(ii) when you cannot refactor your code because only a small change breaks the whole application or 
(iii) when you write a software system together with 20 other developers and you do not know how to integrate results of all developers into one solution or 
(iv) when you software system serves 20 users simultaneously very well but it stops when serving 2,000 users simultaneously and you do not know how to fix it.

Alright! What should I do now?

Software design requires a lot of reading. Each application type (enterprises, games, desktop, web, mobile, security, etc.) require specific design knowledge. At this point we focus only on the basic elements of software design.
In order to get familiar with software design please read these 3 books below in parallel:

- Grady Booch et al. (2005). The Unified Modeling Language User Guide. Addison Wesley Professional

- Craig Larman (2004). Applying UML And Patterns. 3rd Edition. Prentice Hall

- Robert C. Martin (2003). Agile Software Development - Principles, Patterns, and Practices. Pearson
After that please read this Erich Gamma et al (1994). Design Patterns Elements Of Reusable Object Oriented Software. Addison-Wesley Professional book.

Please focus on the Motivation section of each pattern. You can skip a pattern if the problem presented in its Motivation section is not relevant to your situation.
After that please read this Frank Buschmann et al. (1996). Pattern-Oriented Software Architecture: A System Of Patterns. John Wiley & Sons Ltd book.
After that please read 
- this Meilir Page-Jones (1988). The Practical Guide to Structured Systems Design. Pearson Education book, and 
- this Bertrand Meyer (1997). Object-Oriented Software Construction. Prentice Hall book, and
- this Grady Booch et al. (2007). Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with Applications. Pearson book, and
- this David Budgen (2003). Software Design. Pearson book
to learn how to design software systematically.
After that please read this Robert C. Martin (2017). Clean Architecture: A Craftsman’s Guide to Software Structure and Design. Pearson Education book to learn how to create a real world architecture for enterprise application.
After that please read 
- this Len Bass, Paul Clements and Rick Kazman (2012). Software Architecture in Practice. Addison-Wesley book to review software architecture aspects, and
- this Paul Clements et al. (2010). Documenting Software Architectures: Views and Beyond. Pearson book to learn how to document an architecture so that it can be used for communicated, built and maintained, and
- this Humberto Cervantes and Rick Kazman (2016). Designing Software Architectures: A Practical Approach. Addison-Wesley Professional book to learn how to create an architecture systematically.
- this Nick Rozanski and Eoin Woods (2012). Software Systems Architecture: Working with Stakeholders Using Viewpoints and Perspectives. Addison-Wesley Professional book to learn how to apply theory to create an architecture systematically in real world.
After finishing the books please click Topic 13 - Software Project Management to continue.