Tag Archives: PHP

How to Manually Install PHP 7.4 on Windows Server 2019

Motivation:

  • You want to deploy a PHP application or WordPress on Windows Server 2019.
  • You want to update PHP to any version to address compatibility or security issues in Windows.
  • You want to understand how PHP works with IIS.

Solution:

  • Install CGI for IIS on Turn Windows features on or off > Internet Information Services > World Wide Web Services > Application Development Features > CGI.
  • Download VC15 x86 Non Thread Safe package here or under PHP 7.4 section from http://windows.php.net/download/
  • Extract the ZIP file to the C:\Program Files (x86)\php-7.4.9-nts-Win32-vc15-x86 folder.
  • Rename the php-.ini-development file to php.ini.
  • Open the php.ini file and add the following line at the end of the file.
    extension=php_wincache.dll
  • Uncomment the following lines
    fastcgi.impersonate = 1;
    
    cgi.fix_pathinfo=1;
    cgi.force_redirect = 1 (and change the value to 0, i.e. cgi.force_redirect = 0)
    
    extension_dir = "C:\Program Files (x86)\php-7.4.9-nts-Win32-vc15-x86\ext"
    
    extension=php_curl.dll
    extension=php_fileinfo.dll
    extension=php_mbstring.dll
    extension=php_exif.dll
    extension=php_mysqli.dll
    extension=php_pdo_mysql.dll
    extension=php_openssl.dll
    
    error_log = "C:\Program Files (x86)\php-7.4.9-nts-Win32-vc15-x86\php_errors.log"
    
    error_log = syslog
  • A sample php.ini file can be download here.
  • Add C:\Program Files (x86)\php-7.4.9-nts-Win32-vc15-x86 to System Path.
  • Download x86 package of WinCache 2.0 for PHP 7.4 here or from https://sourceforge.net/projects/wincache/.
  • Extract and copy the php_wincache.dll file to C:\Program Files (x86)\php-7.4.9-nts-Win32-vc15-x86\ext
    folder.
  • Open IIS, click on Server name, double click on Handler Mappings, click on Add Module Mapping, and enter below information.
    Request path = *.php
    
    Module = FastCgiModule
    
    Executable = "C:\Program Files (x86)\php-7.4.9-nts-Win32-vc15-x86\php-cgi.exe"
    
    Name = PHP 7.4
    
    Request Restrictions = File or folder
  • Download and install VC_redist.x86.exe of Microsoft Visual C++ Redistributable for Visual Studio 2019 here or on https://visualstudio.microsoft.com/downloads/#microsoft-visual-c-redistributable-for-visual-studio-2019
  • en a Command Prompt, execute below command and ensure that NO WARNINGS APPEAR.
    php --version
  • Create phpinfo.php file with below content in the root website folder.
    <?php phpinfo(); ?>
  • Open http://localhost/phpinfo.php URL and verify PHP information.

 

How to move a WordPress instance from one server to another Linux server

Motivation:

You want to move a WordPress instance from one server to another to consolidate your websites to reduce cost.

Solution:

Install and use below Duplicator plugin to achieve your goal.

https://wordpress.org/plugins/duplicator/

User guide: https://snapcreek.com/duplicator/docs/quick-start/

If everything goes well for you then congratulation!

Otherwise, please review below possible problems and corresponding solutions.


Problem 1:

You don’t have a website on the new server.

Solution 1:

1. Create a new virtual host in the /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

<VirtualHost *:80>
ServerName example.com
ServerAlias www.example.com
DocumentRoot "/var/www/www.example.com"
</VirtualHost>

2. Set 775 permission for /var/www/www.example.com

3. Restart httpd service

sudo systemctl restart httpd

Problem 2:

You are using Amazon Linux 2 server.

You are logged in as ec2-user.

You use WinSCP to upload files and edit configuration files.

You cannot modify /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf and /etc/php.ini.

Solution 2:

1 View permission settings for the file

ls -ld /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

The result indicates that the file owner is root user and root group, not ec2-user.

2. View groups of a user

groups ec2-user

The result indicates that the ec2-user does not belong to root group.

3. Add a user to root group

sudo usermod -a -G root ec2-user

4. Grant Read-Write permission against a file to root group

sudo chmod g+rwx /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
sudo chmod g+rwx /etc/php.ini

5. Logout and login to the server again.


Problem 3:

You are using Amazon Linux 2 server. The ZipArchive feature is missing.

Solution 3:

1. Execute below commands:

sudo amazon-linux-extras install php7.2
sudo yum install php-pear php-devel gcc libzip-devel zlib-devel
sudo pecl install zip-1.13.5 # we must specify a slightly older version due due to compatibility

2. Add “extension=zip.so” to /etc/php.ini

3. Restart the server

sudo reboot

Problem 4:

You don’t have a WordPress database on the new Linux server.

Solution 4:

Execute below MySQL commands:

CREATE USER 'username'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
CREATE DATABASE `wp_database`;
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON `wp_database`.* TO "username"@"localhost";
FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

Problem 5:

An database error occurs while restoring a website.

Solution 5:

1. Execute below commands to remove the website:

sudo chown -R ec2-user:apache /var/www/example.com
sudo chmod 2775 /var/www/example.com && find /var/www/example.com -type d -exec sudo chmod 2775 {} \;
find /var/www/example.com -type f -exec sudo chmod 0664 {} \;
rm -r /var/www/example.com

2. Upload the Duplicator files again, and restore the website again.


Problem 6:

No write access against /var/www/example.com is available for Duplicator.

Solution 6:

1. Execute below commands:

sudo chown -R ec2-user:apache /var/www/example.com
sudo chmod 2775 /var/www/example.com && find /var/www/example.com -type d -exec sudo chmod 2775 {} \;
find /var/www/example.com -type f -exec sudo chmod 0664 {} \;

2. Run http://example.com/installer.php again.

How to Manually Install PHP 8.1 on Windows 10

Motivation:

  • You want to understand how PHP works with IIS.
  • You want to prepare a PHP or WordPress development environment on Windows.
  • You want to update PHP to any version to address compatibility or security issues on Windows.

Solution:

  • Install CGI for IIS on Turn Windows features on or off > Internet Information Services > World Wide Web Services > Application Development Features > CGI.
  • Download VS16 x64 Non Thread Safe package under PHP 8.1 section on https://windows.php.net/download/.
  • Extract the ZIP file to C:\Program Files\php-8.1.10-nts-Win32-vs16-x64 folder.
  • Download the cacert.pem file and move it to the C:\Program Files\php-8.1.10-nts-Win32-vs16-x64\extras\ssl folder.
  • Copy the php-.ini-development file to php.ini.
  • Open the php.ini file and uncomment the following lines
    fastcgi.impersonate = 1;
    
    cgi.fix_pathinfo=1;
    cgi.force_redirect = 1 (and change the value to 0, i.e. cgi.force_redirect = 0)
    
    extension_dir = "C:\Program Files\php-8.1.10-nts-Win32-vs16-x64\ext"
    
    extension=curl
    extension=fileinfo
    extension=gd
    extension=gettext
    extension=mbstring
    extension=exif ; Must be after mbstring as it depends on it
    extension=mysqli
    extension=openssl
    extension=pdo_mysql
    
    error_log = "C:\Program Files\php-8.1.10-nts-Win32-vs16-x64\php_errors.log"
    
    error_log = syslog
    
    curl.cainfo = "C:\Program Files\php-8.1.10-nts-Win32-vs16-x64\extras\ssl\cacert.pem"
    
    openssl.capath="C:\Program Files\php-8.1.10-nts-Win32-vs16-x64\extras\ssl\cacert.pem"
  • Add C:\Program Files\php-8.1.10-nts-Win32-vs16-x64 to SYSTEM PATH.
  • Restart your machine.
  • Open cmd and execute the command below to ensure that the PHP file can be found in the SYSTEM PATH.
    php --version
  • Open IIS, click on Server name, double click on Handler Mappings > Add Module Mapping with below information.
    Request path = *.php
    
    Module = FastCgiModule
    
    Executable = "C:\Program Files\php-8.1.10-nts-Win32-vs16-x64\php-cgi.exe"
    
    Name = PHP 8.1
    
    Request Restrictions = File or folder
  • Create phpinfo.php file with below content in the root website folder.
    <?php phpinfo(); ?>

 

 

Topic 8 – Introduction to Web Application Development

Why do I need to learn about web application development?

Desktop applications are very powerful and convenient but their development, deployment and maintenance are daunting.

The reason is that the platform dependency makes it very expensive to create a desktop application working on different versions of different operating systems, such as Windows, Linux and Mac OSX.

Deployment and updates of desktop application typically require high privileges access to a computer machine, causing a problem for companies requiring high security.

Fortunately, you can overcome these limitations by creating a web application running on a browser. To create a web application you need to learn about web application development.

What can I do after finishing learning web application development?

You will be able to create web applications like The BBC News, The WordPress Blog or The White House Website.

This is exactly what I want to learn! What should I do now?

Web application development requires a lot of reading. You have to master networking concepts, HTML, CSS, JavaScript, a programming language and a database management system for web. Please read
– this Semmy Purewal (2014). Learning Web App Development. O’Reilly Media book, and
– this Jon Duckett (2011). HTML & CSS – Design and Build Websites. John Wiley & Sons book first to get familiar with web application development.

After that please read
– this Stephen Greig (2013). CSS3 – Pushing the Limits. John Wiley & Sons book and
– this Anne Boehm and Zak Ruvalcaba (2018). Murach’s HTML5 and CSS3. Mike Murach and Associates book to learn in-depth about HTML and CSS.

JavaScript is the language for web development because it is implemented in most of the web browsers.
Please read
– this David Flanagan (2020). JavaScript: The Definitive Guide. O’Reilly Media book, and
– this Kyle Simpson (2015). You Don’t Know JS. O’Reilly Media book, and
– this Jon Duckett (2014). JavaScript and JQuery. Interactive Front-End Web Development. John Wiley & Sons book to master it.
Strong knowledge of JavaScript will ease your web development learning very much.

Single page application is the default front-end choice for most of new web development projects.
Please read
– this Kirupa Chinnathambi (2018). Learning React. Addison-Wesley Professional book, and
– this Alex Banks and Eve Porcello (2020). Learning React Modern Patterns for Developing React Apps. O’Reilly book to learn how to create a single page application (SPA).

After that you will have 4 main options. You can choose one of them. We STRONGLY recommend that you choose only ONE option.

You should NOT learn all of them at the beginning. You could save your time by digging into only one option. After mastering the selected technology, you will realize that all of them are very similar in the sense of use.

One note is that although their concepts are similar to one another but it still takes us much time to learn how to apply an approach to real world web application.

When developing a real world web application, you often use only one or two of these 4 approaches. If you cannot make your own selection then we recommend you
– a combination of the first and second option, or
– a combination of the first and third option, or
– a combination of the first and fourth option.

The first option is PHP world.  Please read
– this Luke Welling and Laura Thomson (2016). PHP and MySQL Web Development. Addison-Wesley Professional book or
– this Robin Nixon (2021). Learning PHP, MySQL & JavaScript. O’Reilly book.
After that depending on your projects you may need to read the books below
Brad Williams et al. (2015). Professional WordPress: Design and Development. Wrox.

The second option is ASP.NET.
Please read
– this Adam Freeman (2020). Pro ASP.NET Core 3: Develop Cloud-Ready Web Applications Using MVC, Blazor, and Razor Pages. Apress book and
– this Andrew Lock (2021). ASP.NET Core in Action. Manning book.

A complementary part for this option is ASP.NET Web Forms that is a technology that you need to master if you are maintaining a legacy project.
Please read this Imar Spaanjaars (2014). Beginning ASP.NET 4.5.1 in C# and VB. Wrox book to learn about ASP.NET Web Forms.

The third option is Java world.
If you are not familiar with Java language then please read
– this Cay S. Horstmann (2019). Core Java. Volume I – Fundamentals. Pearson book, and
– this Cay S. Horstmann (2019). Core Java. Volume II – Advanced Features. Pearson book first.

Then please read
– this Tim Downey (2021). Guide to Web Development with Java – Understanding Website Creation. Springer book or
– this Nicholas S. Williams (2014). Professional Java for Web Applications. John Wiley & Sons book.

After that please read this Mark Heckler (2021). Spring Boot – Up and Running – Building Cloud Native Java and Kotlin Applications. O’Reilly Media book.

The 4th option is Node.js world.
Please read
– this Jonathan Wexler (2019). Get Programming with Node.js. Manning Publications book, and
– this Bruno Joseph D’mello et al. (2017). Web Development with MongoDB and Node. Packt Publishing book.

There are also several other options that you may consider if you are required to learn them for a maintenance project.
These options include
Ruby on Rails, please read this Michael Hartl (2020). The Ruby on Rails Tutorial. Addison-Wesley Professional book,
Flask, please read this Miguel Grinberg (2018). Flask Web Development: Developing Web Applications with Python. O’Reilly Media book, and
Django
.

If you need to convert a web application from one platform to another or create a web application framework then please read
– this Leon Shklar and Richard Rosen (2009). Web Application Architecture. John Wiley & Sons book, and
– this Leonard Richardson and Mike Amundsen (2013). RESTful Web APIs. O’Reilly Media book.

Terminology Review:

  • Networking
  • HTTP
  • HTML
  • Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)
  • CGI
  • Web Applications
  • Web Application Frameworks
  • Portal Frameworks
  • Single-Page Application (SPA)
  • Multiple Page Application

After finishing learning about web application development please click Topic 9 – Introduction to Mobile Application Development to continue.

 

Topic 5 – Object-Oriented Programming

Why do I need to learn about object-oriented programming?

Because most of modern software are written using object-oriented programming languages. Using object-oriented programming as a tool and more importantly as a problem solving approach will save you a lot of time and cost when you create modern software systems.

What can I do after finishing learning object-oriented programming?

You will be able to write a program to allow a user
– to draw a picture, save it, then load it, or
– to play ping-pong game, or
– to store and search for an employee’s CV.

Alright! What should I do now?

Please read this Jim Keogh and Mario Giannini (2004). OOP Demystified. McGraw-Hill book.

Is that all?

Unfortunately, the book is not sufficient for writing real world object-oriented software. Although the book already gives you the fundamental concepts of object-oriented programming the examples are only to illustrate the concepts, not to demonstrate real world situations.

We recommend that you read it first because it introduces basic concepts of object-oriented programming very well. It helps you to distinguish object-oriented concepts from procedural programing concepts very clearly so that you could read other books to dig into real world object-oriented programming in a proper way.

Please read this RB Whitaker (2017). The C# Player’s Guide. Starbound Software book to learn how to apply object-oriented concepts to creating real world software using a specific object-oriented programming language (i.e. C# language).

After that please take a quick look at
– this Joseph Albahari (2021). C# 9.0 in a Nutshell: The Definitive Reference. O’Reilly Media book or
– this Herbert Schildt (2010). C# 4.0 The Complete Reference. McGraw Hill book so that you can refer to a specific topic that needs more study when developing real world software.

I hear that there are many object-oriented programming languages such as C++, C#, Java, PHP, Objective-C, Swift, Python, Ruby.
How many object-oriented programming languages do I need to know?

You should learn as many as possible. However, in this stage, we recommend that you learn only C++ or C# or Java.

C++ is the most used language for creating software systems that need high performance, including games, operating systems, compilers, database management systems, web browsers, graphics editors, medical and engineering applications.

Java and C# are the most used languages for creating enterprise systems.

If you are required or prefer to learn C++, please read this Bjarne Stroustrup (2013). The C++ Programming Language. Pearson Education book.

If you are required or prefer to learn Java, please read this Herbert Schildt (2019). Java: The Complete Reference. McGraw-Hill Education book.

After that please read
– this Matt Weisfeld (2019). The Object-Oriented Thought Process. Pearson Education book and
– this Bertrand Meyer (1997). Object-Oriented Software Construction. Prentice Hall book to get deeper understanding about object-oriented concepts and learn how to design software using object-oriented approach more efficiently.

Terminology Review:

  • Abstraction.
  • Encapsulation.
  • Class-based Inheritance.
  • Prototype-based Inheritance.
  • Polymorphism.
  • Object-Oriented Analysis.
  • Object-Oriented Design.
  • Object-Oriented Programming.

After finishing learning about object-oriented programming please click Topic 6 – Introduction to Windows Programming to continue.

Topic 3 – Introduction to Programming

Why do I need to know a programming language?

Because you will develop your software using a programming language.
A programming language is a language that both you and a computer will understand.
It’s a tool for you to express what you want a computer to do.
It’s a tool for you to write instructions of your computer programs.
Without knowledge of a programming language, you cannot develop any software.

I hear that there are many programming languages such as C, C++, C#, Objective-C, Java, Swift, Ruby, Python, JavaScript, PHP, F#, Kotlin,  Clojure, Go, or Lisp.
How many programming languages should I know?

As many as possible. However, at this stage, you should learn about structure of a computer program and a procedure language (e.g. C or C++) first.

What can I do after finishing learning programming language?

You will be able to write a program to tell a computer
– to do a calculation, or
– to count for occurrence of a string, or
– to store and search for a string, or
– to sort a list of numbers, or
– to display an image.

What should I do now?

Please read this Stephen Prata (2011). C Primer Plus. Pearson book.

Alternatively, you can read

– this Stephen Prata (2012). C++ Primer Plus. Pearson book (from Chapter 1 to Chapter 9), or

– this John M. Zelle (2017). Python Programming: An Introduction to Computer Science. Franklin, Beedle & Associates book (from Chapter 1 to Chapter 9), or

– this Charles Severance (2013). Python for Informatics: Exploring Information book (from Chapter 1 to Chapter 11), or

– this Chris Pine (2013). Learn to Program: The Facets of Ruby Series. The Pragmatic Bookshelf book (from Chapter 1 to Chapter 11), or

– this Alan A. A. Donovan and Brian W. Kernighan (2015). The Go Programming Language. Addison-Wesley Professional book, and this Nathan Youngman and Roger Peppe (2018). Get Programming with Go. Manning Publications book.

After that if you would like to study system programming in depth then please read

– this Brian W. Kernighan and Dennis M. Ritchie (2016). The C Programming Language. Prentice Hall book, or

– this Michael Kerrisk (2018). The Linux Programming Interface. No Starch Press book.

After that if you would like to get vocabularies and in-depth knowledge about programming, especially the relationship between mathematics and programming, and ideas of functional programming and logic programming then please read

– this Harold Abelson and Gerald Jay Sussman (1996). Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs. The MIT Press book, or

– these Course Notes.

Terminology Review:

  • Computer Programs.
  • Compilers.
  • Just-In-Time Compilers.
  • Interpreters.
  • Structured Programming.
  • Procedural Programming.
  • Object-Oriented Programming.
  • Functional Programming.
  • Declarative Programming.
  • Logic Programming.
  • Primitive Types: int, float, double, string, date/time, null.
  • Basic Constructs: variables & assignments, pointers, declarations, functions, macro.
  • Control Flow: if/else, while, switch, for, break, continue, recursion, exception, parallelism, signal, jump.
  • User-defined Types: struct, class, type.
  • Data Structures: Arrays, Lists, Linked Lists.
  • Object-Oriented Programming: abstraction, encapsulation, class-based inheritance, prototype-based inheritance, polymorphism.
  • Functional Programming: first-class and higher-order functions, no side effects, recursion.
  • Modularity: files, packages, namespaces, libraries, modules.
  • Concurrency: processes, threads, locks, channels, timers, callbacks, events, promises, event loop.
  • Type system: static type, dynamic type.
  • Error handling: try/catch.
  • Metaprogramming: reflection, template programming, DSL.
    • Clojure.

    After finishing learning about programming languages please click Topic 4 – Introduction to Algorithms and Data Structures to continue.