Category Archives: Web Application Development

Topic 7 – Introduction to Web Application Development

Why do I need to learn about web application development?

Desktop applications are very powerful and convenient but their development, deployment and maintenance are daunting. The reason is that the platform dependency makes it very expensive to create a desktop application working on different versions of different operating systems, such as Windows, Linux and Mac OSX. Deployment and updates of desktop application typically require high privileges access to a computer machine, causing a problem for companies requiring high security.

Fortunately, you can overcome these limitations by creating a web application running on a browser. To create a web application you need to learn about web application development.

What can I do after finishing learning web application development?

You will be able to create web applications like The BBC News, The WordPress Blog or The White House Website.

This is just what I want to learn! What should I do now?

Web application development requires a lot of reading. You have to master networking concepts, HTML, CSS, Javascript, a programming language and a database management system for web. Please read this Semmy Purewal (2014). Learning Web App Development. O'Reilly Media book first to get familiar with web application development.
After that you will have 4 options. You can choose one of them. We STRONGLY recommend that you choose only ONE option. You should NOT learn all of them at the beginning. You could save your time by digging into only one option. After mastering the selected path, you will realize that all of them are very similar in the sense of use. One note is that although their concepts are similar to one another but they will still take us much time to learn how to apply implementation of an approach in real world solutions.
When developing a real world web application, you often use only one or two of these 4 approaches. If you cannot make your own selection then we recommend you a combination of the first and second option or a combination of the second and third option.
The first option is ASP.NET Core. Please read 
- this "Adam Freeman (2017). Pro ASP.NET Core MVC 2. Apress" book or 
- this "Dino Esposito (2018). Programming ASP.NET Core. Pearson Education" book.
A complementary part for this option is ASP.NET Web Forms. Please read this "Imar Spaanjaars (2014). Beginning ASP.NET 4.5.1: in C# and VB" book.
The second option is PHP world.  Please read 
- this Luke Welling and Laura Thomson (2016). PHP and MySQL Web Development. Addison-Wesley Professional book or
- this Robin Nixon (2018). Learning PHP, MySQL & JavaScript. O'Reilly book.

After that depending on your projects you can read these books below.
- Brad Williams, David Damstra and Hal Stern (2015). Professional WordPress: Design and Development. Wrox.
The third option is Java world. You will need to read 2 books for this option. Please get this "Cay S. Horstmann (2012). Core Java Volume I--Fundamentals" book and read it if you are not familiar with Java language.

Then please read 
- this "Tim Downey (2012). Guide to Web Development with Java: Understanding Website Creation" book or 
- this "Nicholas S. Williams (2014). Professional Java for Web Applications" book.
The 4th option is Node world.  Please read this
- this "Jonathan Wexler (2019). Get Programming with Node.js. Manning Publications" book, and
- this "Bruno Joseph D'mello et al. (2017). Web Development with MongoDB and Node. Packt Publishing" book.
After that please read 
- this Kirupa Chinnathambi (2018). Learning React. Addison-Wesley Professional book, and
- this Robin Wieruch (2020). The Road to React - Your Journey to Master Plain Yet Pragmatic React. Leanpub book to learn how to create a single page application (SPA).
After finishing these books if you want to create sophisticated interactive web applications please read 
- this "David Flanagan (2011). JavaScript - The Definitive Guide. Sixth Edition. O'Reilly Media" book and
- this "Kyle Simpson (2015). You Don't Know JS" book.
If you want to convert a web application from one platform to another or create a web application framework please read this "Leon Shklar and Richard Rosen (2009). Web Application Architecture: Principles, Protocols and Practices" book.
After finishing the books please click Topic 8 - Introduction to Mobile Application Development to continue.


How to move a WordPress instance from one server to another Linux server


You want to move a WordPress instance from one server to another to consolidate your websites to reduce cost.


Install and use below Duplicator plugin to achieve your goal.

User guide:

If everything goes well for you then congratulation!

Otherwise, please review below possible problems and corresponding solutions.

Problem 1:

You don’t have a website on the new server.

Solution 1:

1. Create a new virtual host in the /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

<VirtualHost *:80>
DocumentRoot "/var/www/"

2. Set 775 permission for /var/www/

3. Restart httpd service

sudo systemctl restart httpd

Problem 2:

You are using Amazon Linux 2 server.

You are logged in as ec2-user.

You use WinSCP to upload files and edit configuration files.

You cannot modify /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf and /etc/php.ini.

Solution 2:

1 View permission settings for the file

ls -ld /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

The result indicates that the file owner is root user and root group, not ec2-user.

2. View groups of a user

groups ec2-user

The result indicates that the ec2-user does not belong to root group.

3. Add a user to root group

sudo usermod -a -G root ec2-user

4. Grant Read-Write permission against a file to root group

sudo chmod g+rwx /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
sudo chmod g+rwx /etc/php.ini

5. Logout and login to the server again.

Problem 3:

You are using Amazon Linux 2 server. The ZipArchive feature is missing.

Solution 3:

1. Execute below commands:

sudo amazon-linux-extras install php7.2
sudo yum install php-pear php-devel gcc libzip-devel zlib-devel
sudo pecl install zip-1.13.5 # we must specify a slightly older version due due to compatibility

2. Add “” to /etc/php.ini

3. Restart the server

sudo reboot

Problem 4:

You don’t have a WordPress database on the new Linux server.

Solution 4:

Execute below MySQL commands:

CREATE USER 'username'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
CREATE DATABASE `wp_database`;
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON `wp_database`.* TO "username"@"localhost";

Problem 5:

An database error occurs while restoring a website.

Solution 5:

1. Execute below commands to remove the website:

sudo chown -R ec2-user:apache /var/www/
sudo chmod 2775 /var/www/ && find /var/www/ -type d -exec sudo chmod 2775 {} \;
find /var/www/ -type f -exec sudo chmod 0664 {} \;
rm -r /var/www/

2. Upload the Duplicator files again, and restore the website again.

Problem 6:

No write access against /var/www/ is available for Duplicator.

Solution 6:

1. Execute below commands:

sudo chown -R ec2-user:apache /var/www/
sudo chmod 2775 /var/www/ && find /var/www/ -type d -exec sudo chmod 2775 {} \;
find /var/www/ -type f -exec sudo chmod 0664 {} \;

2. Run again.

Setting File Permissions for WordPress on IIS


  • You have a WordPress instance in Windows with IIS.
  • You upload a file. Its thumbnail is not shown in Media Library.
  • You change the file permission. Its thumbnail now is shown correctly in Media Library.
  • You upload another file and have to change the file permission manually again.
  • How can we make WordPress automatically set the correct permission for new uploaded files?


  1. Ensure that the the Identity of Application pool that the website is running under is ApplicationPoolIdentity.
  2. Execute below commands as Administrator
icacls "C:\inetpub\wwwroot\" /grant "IUSR":(OI)(CI)F /T
icacls "C:\inetpub\wwwroot\" /grant "IIS_IUSRS":(OI)(CI)F /T

3. Open IIS Manager, click on your website, click Authentication, click Anonymous Authentication (which should be the only one enabled), click Edit, select Application pool identity if it is not selected, click OK.

How to change a WordPress website’s domain name?
  • Open the wp-config.php file.
  • Add two lines to the file, right before /* That’s all, stop editing! Happy blogging. */:
  • Bulk edit the posts content if needed.

How To Manually Install PHP 7.1 for Windows Server 2016


To understand how PHP works with IIS in order to be able to update PHP to any version to address compatibility or security issues.

Using a tool to install PHP for IIS, for example Microsoft Web Platform Installer 5.0, restricts us from using only versions supported by the tool.


  • Install CGI for IIS.
  • Download VC14 x86 Non Thread Safe under PHP 7.1 section from
  • Extract the ZIP file to C:\Program Files\php-7.1.33-nts-Win32-VC14-x86 folder.
  • Rename the php-.ini-development file to php.ini.
  • Open the php.ini file and add the following line at the end of the file.
  • Uncomment the following lines
fastcgi.impersonate = 1;

cgi.force_redirect = 1 (and change the value to 0, i.e. cgi.force_redirect = 0)

extension_dir = "C:\Program Files\php-7.1.33-nts-Win32-VC14-x86\ext"


error_log = "C:\Program Files\php-7.1.33-nts-Win32-VC14-x86\php_errors.log"

error_log = syslog
  • Add C:\Program Files\php-7.1.33-nts-Win32-VC14-x86 to System Path.
  • Download x86 package of WinCache 2.0 for PHP 7.1  from
  • Extract and copy the php_wincache.dll file to C:\Program Files\php-7.1.33-nts-Win32-VC14-x86\ext
  • Open IIS, click on Server name, double click on Handler Mappings > Add Module Mapping with below information
Request path = *.php
Module = FastCgiModule
Executable = "C:\Program Files\php-7.1.33-nts-Win32-VC14-x86\php-cgi.exe"
Name = PHP7.1
Request Restrictions = File or folder

Open a Command Prompt, execute below command and ensure that no warnings appear.

php -version

Using Let’s Encrypt with IIS on Windows


Why use an SSL/TLS certificate to secure your website?

1. To protect your website users from man-in-the-middle attacks.
2. To ensure the integrity of the data being sent to your website.

Why use Let’s Encrypt SSL/TLS certificate?

It's FREE.

Tested environment:

  1. Windows Server 2016/IIS 10
  2. win-acme.v2.0.10.444


  1. Log in a Windows server.
  2. Download win-acme.
  3. Unzip the files to C:\inetpub\win-acme.v2.0.10.444
  4. Open cmd.exe as Administrator and cd to C:\inetpub\win-acme.v2.0.10.444
  5. Type wacs.exe and press Enter
  6. Follow the instructions. Please select 5: Manually input host names if you want to secure both naked domain and www domain.
  7. Open Task Scheduler and ensure that a task with description “Check for renewal of ACME certificates.” has been created.
  8. Open Firewall port 443 if needed.
  9. Open the selected site using HTTPS protocol.

Redirecting HTTP to HTTPS in IIS7:

  1. Install the Microsoft URL Rewrite Module if needed.
  2. Make sure Require SSL is NOT checked under SSL Settings for your website.
  3. Copy and paste the following code between the <rules> and </rules> tags in your web.config file in your website root directory.
<rule name="HTTP to HTTPS redirect" stopProcessing="true">
  <match url="(.*)" />
      <add input="{HTTPS}" pattern="off" ignoreCase="true" />
  <action type="Redirect" redirectType="Found" url="https://{HTTP_HOST}/{R:1}" />

4. Open your site using HTTP protocol and ensure that you are redirected to the HTTPS site.

Multiple SSL Certificates per IP Address

  1. You have to use Server 2012 IIS to support Server Name Indication (SNI) which allows you to bind multiple SSL certificates to a single IP Address.
  2. Please repeat the Procedure for each site, then go to the IIS site, Bindings and ensure that the check box Require Server Name Indication is selected and the corresponding SSL Certificate is selected.
  3. Please be noted that SNI does not work with Windows XP clients.