How to Set File Permissions for WordPress on Ubuntu


  • You have a WordPress instance on Ubuntu Nginx.
  • You want to ensure that only the Nginx process can access WordPress files.


  1. View current file owner and group:
ls -l /var/html

The root folder should be owned by www-data user. www-data is the user that web servers like Apache and Nginx on Ubuntu use by default for their normal operation.

2. Change file owner and group to www-data if necessary:

sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/html

3. Set minimum permissions for folders:

cd /var/html
sudo find . -type d -exec chmod 755 {} \; # directory permissions rwxr-xr-x

4. Set minimum permissions for files:

cd /var/html
sudo find . -type f -exec chmod 644 {} \; # file permissions rw-r--r--

5. Verify the changes:

ls -l /var/html

How to Back Up and Restore IIS App Pool and Site Settings


You want to back up and restore IIS app pool and site settings.


1. Open Command Prompt (Admin) and execute commands below to export IIS app pool and site settings to XML files.

%windir%\system32\inetsrv\appcmd list apppool /config /xml > \\\BCDR\WEBBC02\E\inetpub\apppools.xml
%windir%\system32\inetsrv\appcmd list site /config /xml > \\\BCDR\WEBBC02\E\inetpub\sites.xml

2. Remove all existing IIS app pools and sites, then execute the command below to import IIS app pool and site settings from XML files.

%windir%\system32\inetsrv\appcmd list apppool /config /xml < \\\BCDR\WEBBC02\E\inetpub\apppools.xml
%windir%\system32\inetsrv\appcmd list site /config /xml < \\\BCDR\WEBBC02\E\inetpub\sites.xml

Forget vs. Forget About

Forget is a general word, forget about is more specific.

  • I forgot my keys.“: Person forgot their keys, as in it was left somewhere, and the person doesn’t have it.
  • I want to forget about my keys.“: Person would like to “un”know about its keys, or wants to bury the memories of it.
  • I forgot that face.“: Person doesn’t remember how someone’s face looked like.
  • I forgot about that face.“: Non-direct way of saying one doesn’t remember all the facial features – but not the entire face.

How to Fix Firefox No Sound Issue


Your Firefox suddenly does not play any sounds.

You have tried uninstalling and reinstalling it but the problem still persists.

Quick Solution:

  1. Go to Windows Settings > Sound > Advanced Sound Options .
  2. Make sure Firefox is not muted or set to low volume.

Advanced Solution:

  1. Create a Firefox account and synchronize (make a backup of) your current settings.
  2. Uninstall Firefox using Windows Apps and features.
  3. Go to %APPDATA%\Mozilla and delete Firefox folder.
  4. Open regedit.exe, search for Firefox, and delete all the keys and values that can be found. This process will take some time. Just ignore any errors that may occur when some keys or values cannot be deleted.
  5. Restart your computer.
  6. Download Firefox offline installer.
  7. Install Firefox.
  8. Log in your Firefox account and restore your settings.