Tag Archives: Ubuntu

How to Set File Permissions for WordPress on Ubuntu


  • You have a WordPress instance on Ubuntu Nginx.
  • You want to ensure that only the Nginx process can access WordPress files.


  1. View current file owner and group:
ls -l /var/html

The root folder should be owned by www-data user. www-data is the user that web servers like Apache and Nginx on Ubuntu use by default for their normal operation.

2. Change file owner and group to www-data if necessary:

sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/html

3. Set minimum permissions for folders:

cd /var/html
sudo find . -type d -exec chmod 755 {} \; # directory permissions rwxr-xr-x

4. Set minimum permissions for files:

cd /var/html
sudo find . -type f -exec chmod 644 {} \; # file permissions rw-r--r--

5. Verify the changes:

ls -l /var/html

Topic 1 – Operating Systems

Why do I need to learn about operating systems?

Because you will develop your software using an operating system or for an operating system.

How many operating systems should I know?

As many as possible. We recommend that you learn how to work with Windows first. Then you learn about basic concepts of an operating system.

How do I learn to use operating systems?

Please read this Andy Rathbone (2015). Windows 10 For Dummies. Wiley book.

How about other operating systems such as macOS, Linux or Unix?

If you have a Mac then you can read this Pogue David (2019). macOS Mojave: The Missing Manual. O’Reilly Media book.

If you have a PC with Ubuntu, or Linux, or Unix then you can read this Mark G. Sobell (2015). A Practical Guide to Ubuntu Linux. Prentice Hall book.

After that please read these Introduction to Computing Principles lecture notes.

After that please read this Abraham Silberschatz et al. (2018). Operating System Concepts. Wiley book.

Once you finish reading these books please click Topic 2 – Introduction to Programming to continue.